Executing Shell Commands with Node.js


System administrators and developers frequently turn to automation to reduce their workload and improve their processes. When working with servers, automated tasks are frequently scripted with shell scripts. However, a developer might prefer to use a more general higher-level language for complex tasks. Many applications also need to interact with the file system and other OS-level components, which is often more easily done with command line level utilities.

With Node.js, we can run shell commands and process their inputs and outputs using JavaScript. Therefore, we can write most of these complex operations in JavaScript instead of the shell scripting language, potentially making the program easier to maintain.

In this article, we will learn the various ways to execute shell commands in Node.js using the child_process module.

The child_proccess Module

Node.js executes its main event loop in a single thread. However, that does not mean that all of its processing is done in that one thread. Asynchronous tasks in Node.js are executed in other internal threads. When they are complete, the code in the callback, or error, is returned to the main, single thread.

These various threads are run in the same Node.js process. However, it is sometimes desirable to create another process to execute code. When a new process is created, the Operating System determines which processor it uses and how to schedule its tasks.

The child_process module creates new child processes of our main Node.js process. We can execute shell commands with these child processes.

Using external processes can improve performance of your application if used correctly. For example, if a feature of a Node.js application is CPU intensive, as Node.js is single threaded it would block the other tasks from executing while it is running.

However, we can delegate that resource intensive code to a child process, let's say a very efficient C++ program. Our Node.js code will then execute that C++ program in a new process, not blocking its other activities, and when complete process its output.

Two functions that we will use to execute shell commands are exec() and spawn().

The exec() Function

The exec() function creates a new shell and executes a given command. The output from the execution is buffered, which means kept in memory, and is available for use in a callback.

Let's use the exec() function to list all folders and files in our current directory. In a new Node.js file called lsExec.js, write the following code:

const { exec } = require("child_process");

exec("ls -la", (error, stdout, stderr) => {
    if (error) {
        console.log(`error: ${error.message}`);
    if (stderr) {
        console.log(`stderr: ${stderr}`);
    console.log(`stdout: ${stdout}`);

First, we require the child_process module in our program, specifically using the exec() function (via ES6 destructuring). Next, we call the exec() function with two parameters:

  • A string with the shell command we want executed.
  • A callback function with three parameters: error, stdout, stderr.

The shell command we are running is ls -la, which should list all the files and folders in our current directory line by line, including hidden files/folders. The callback function logs whether we got an error while trying to execute the command or output on the shell's stdout or stderr streams.

Note: The error object is different from stderr. The error object is not null when the child_process module fails to execute a command. This could happen if you try to execute another Node.js script in exec() but the file could not be found, for example. On the other hand, if the command successfully runs and writes a message to the standard error stream, then the stderr object would not be null.

If you run that Node.js file, you should see output similar to:

$ node lsExec.js
stdout: total 0
drwxr-xr-x@ 9 arpan arpan  0 Dec  7 00:14 .
drwxr-xr-x@ 4 arpan arpan  0 Dec  7 22:09 ..
-rw-r--r--@ 1 arpan arpan  0 Dec  7 15:10 lsExec.js

child process exited with code 0

Now that we've understood how to run commands with exec(), let's learn another way to execute commands with spawn().

The spawn() Function

The spawn() function executes a command in a new process. This function uses a Stream API, so its output of the command is made available via listeners.

Similar to before, we will use the spawn() function to list all folders and files in our current directory. Let's create a new Node.js file, lsSpawn.js, and enter the following:

const { spawn } = require("child_process");

const ls = spawn("ls", ["-la"]);

ls.stdout.on("data", data => {
    console.log(`stdout: ${data}`);

ls.stderr.on("data", data => {
    console.log(`stderr: ${data}`);

ls.on('error', (error) => {
    console.log(`error: ${error.message}`);

ls.on("close", code => {
    console.log(`child process exited with code ${code}`);

We begin by requiring the spawn() function from the child_process module. Then, we create a new process that executes the ls command, passing -la as an argument. Note how the arguments are held in an array and not included in the command string.

We then set up our listeners. The stdout object of ls, fires a data event when the command writes to that stream. Similarly, the stderr also fires a data event when the command writes to that stream.

Errors are caught by listening for them directly on the object that stores the reference for the command. You will only get an error if child_process fails to run the command.

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The close event occurs when the command has finished.

If we run this Node.js file, we should get output like before with exec():

$ node lsSpawn.js
stdout: total 0
drwxr-xr-x@ 9 arpan arpan  0 Dec  7 00:14 .
drwxr-xr-x@ 4 arpan arpan  0 Dec  7 22:09 ..
-rw-r--r--@ 1 arpan arpan  0 Dec  7 15:10 lsExec.js
-rw-r--r--@ 1 arpan arpan  0 Dec  7 15:40 lsSpawn.js

child process exited with code 0

When to use exec() and spawn()?

The key difference between exec() and spawn() is how they return the data. As exec() stores all the output in a buffer, it is more memory intensive than spawn(), which streams the output as it comes.

Generally, if you are not expecting large amounts of data to be returned, you can use exec() for simplicity. Good examples of use-cases are creating a folder or getting the status of a file. However, if you are expecting a large amount of output from your command, then you should use spawn(). A good example would be using commands to manipulate binary data and then loading it into your Node.js program.


Node.js can run shell commands by using the standard child_process module. If we use the exec() function, our command will run and its output will be available to us in a callback. If we use the spawn() module, its output will be available via event listeners.

If our application expects a lot of output from our commands, we should prefer spawn() over exec(). If not, we might opt to use exec() for its simplicity.

Now that you can run tasks external to Node.js, what applications would you build?

Last Updated: September 5th, 2023
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