At some point when writing Python code, you may have come across a line at the top of some scripts that looks something like this:
#!/usr/bin/env python3. This line, known as a shebang, is more than just a quirky looking comment. It actually an important role in how scripts are executed in Unix-like operating systems.
Let's start by understanding what a shebang actually is. A shebang, also known as a hashbang, is a two-character sequence (
#!) that appears at the very start of a script. It's followed by the path to the interpreter that should be used to run the script. Here's an example of a simple script with a shebang:
#!/usr/bin/env python3 print("Hello, World!")
When you run this script from the command line, the operating system uses the shebang to determine that it should use the Python 3 interpreter located at
/usr/bin/env python3 to execute the script.
Note: The shebang must be the very first thing in the file. Even a single space or comment before it will cause it to be ignored.
Why Use Shebang in Python Scripts
So why should you bother with shebangs in your Python scripts? The main reason is portability and convenience. If you include a shebang in your script, you can run it directly from the command line without having to explicitly invoke the Python interpreter. This can make the scripts easier to run.
This is more convenient than having to type
python3 myscript.py every time you want to run your script. It also means that your script can be used in the same way as any other command-line tool, which makes it easier to integrate with other scripts and tools.
How to Use Shebang in Python Scripts
Using a shebang in your Python scripts is straightforward. Just add it as the first line of your script, followed by the path to the Python interpreter you want to use. Here's an example:
#!/usr/bin/env python3 # Rest of your script goes here...
In this example, and the previous ones throughout this Byte,
/usr/bin/env python3 is the path to the Python 3 interpreter. The
env command is used to find the Python interpreter in the system's
Note: It's better to use
/usr/bin/env python3 rather than hard-coding the path to the Python interpreter (like
/usr/bin/python3). This will ensure that the script will use whichever Python interpreter appears first in the system's
PATH, which makes your script more portable across different systems.
When to Use Shebangs
The shebang (
#!) is not always needed in Python scripts, but there are certain times where it's useful. If you're running your script directly from the terminal, the shebang can help.
With the shebang, you can make your script executable and run it like this:
That's a bit cleaner, isn't it? This is especially useful when you're writing scripts that will be used frequently, or by other users who may not know (or care) which interpreter they should use.
Specifics of Shebang in Different Shells
The shebang works pretty much the same in all Unix shells. However, there are some nuances worth mentioning. For example, in the Bourne shell (
sh) and Bash, the shebang must be the very first line of the script. If there's any whitespace or other characters before the shebang, it won't be recognized.
In other shells like
tcsh, the shebang is not recognized at all. In these cases, you have to call the interpreter explicitly.
Also, keep in mind that not all systems have the same default shell. So if your script uses features specific to a certain shell (like arrays in Bash), you should specify that shell in your shebang, like so:
The shebang is a simple way to make your Python scripts more user-friendly and portable. It's not always necessary, but it's good practice to include it in your scripts, especially if they're meant to be used on Unix-based systems.
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