## Introduction to the Python lxml Library

lxml is a Python library which allows for easy handling of XML and HTML files, and can also be used for web scraping. There are a lot of off-the-shelf XML parsers out there, but for better results, developers sometimes prefer to write their own XML and HTML parsers. This is when the lxml library comes to play. The key benefits of this library are that it's ease of use, extremely fast when parsing large documents, very well documented, and provides easy conversion of data to Python data types, resulting in easier file manipulation.

In this tutorial, we will deep dive into Python's lxml library, starting with how to set it up for different operating systems, and then discussing its benefits and the wide range of functionalities it offers.

### Installation

There are multiple ways to install lxml on your system. We'll explore some of them below.

#### Using Pip

Pip is a Python package manager which is used to download and install Python libraries to your local system with ease i.e. it downloads and installs all the dependencies for the package you're installing, as well.

If you have pip installed on your system, simply run the following command in terminal or command prompt:

$pip install lxml  #### Using apt-get If you're using MacOS or Linux, you can install lxml by running this command in your terminal: $ sudo apt-get install python-lxml


#### Using easy_install

You probably won't get to this part, but if none of the above commands works for you for some reason, try using easy_install:

\$ easy_install lxml


Note: If you wish to install any particular version of lxml, you can simply state it when you run the command in the command prompt or terminal like this, lxml==3.x.y.

By now, you should have a copy of the lxml library installed on your local machine. Let's now get our hands dirty and see what cool things can be done using this library.

### Functionality

To be able to use the lxml library in your program, you first need to import it. You can do that by using the following command:

from lxml import etree as et


This will import the etree module, the module of our interest, from the lxml library.

#### Creating HTML/XML Documents

Using the etree module, we can create XML/HTML elements and their subelements, which is a very useful thing if we're trying to write or manipulate an HTML or XML file. Let's try to create the basic structure of an HTML file using etree:

root = et.Element('html', version="5.0")

# Pass the parent node, name of the child node,
# and any number of optional attributes
et.SubElement(root, 'title', bgcolor="red", fontsize='22')
et.SubElement(root, 'body', fontsize="15")


In the code above, you need to know that the Element function requires at least one parameter, whereas the SubElement function requires at least two. This is because the Element function only 'requires' the name of the element to be created, whereas the SubElement function requires the name of both the root node and the child node to be created.

It's also important to know that both these functions only have a lower bound to the number of arguments they can accept, but no upper bound because you can associate as many attributes with them as you want. To add an attribute to an element, simply add an additional parameter to the (Sub)Element function and specify your attribute in the form of attributeName='attribute value'.

Let's try to run the code we wrote above to gain a better intuition regarding these functions:

# Use pretty_print=True to indent the HTML output
print (et.tostring(root, pretty_print=True).decode("utf-8"))


Output:

<html version="5.0">
<title bgcolor="red" fontsize="22"/>
<body fontsize="15"/>
</html>


There's another way to create and organize your elements in a hierarchical manner. Let's explore that as well:

root = et.Element('html')
root.append(et.SubElement('body'))


So in this case whenever we create a new element, we simply append it to the root/parent node.

#### Parsing HTML/XML Documents

Until now, we have only considered creating new elements, assigning attributes to them, etc. Let's now see an example where we already have an HTML or XML file, and we wish to parse it to extract certain information. Assuming that we have the HTML file that we created in the first example, let's try to get the tag name of one specific element, followed by printing the tag names of all the elements.

print(root.tag)


Output:

html


Now to iterate through all the child elements in the root node and print their tags:

for e in root:
print(e.tag)


Output:

head
title
body


#### Working with Attributes

Let's now see how we associate attributes to existing elements, as well as how to retrieve the value of a particular attribute for a given element.

Using the same root element as before, try out the following code:

root.set('newAttribute', 'attributeValue')

# Print root again to see if the new attribute has been added
print(et.tostring(root, pretty_print=True).decode("utf-8"))


Output:

<html version="5.0" newAttribute="attributeValue">
<title bgcolor="red" fontsize="22"/>
<body fontsize="15"/>
</html>


Here we can see that the newAttribute="attributeValue" has indeed been added to the root element.

Let's now try to get the values of the attributes we have set in the above code. Here we access a child element using array indexing on the root element, and then use the get() method to retrieve the attribute:

print(root.get('newAttribute'))
print(root[1].get('alpha')) # root[1] accesses the title element
print(root[1].get('bgcolor'))


Output:

attributeValue
None
red


#### Retrieving Text from Elements

Now that we have seen basic functionalities of the etree module, let's try to do some more interesting things with our HTML and XML files. Almost always, these files have some text in between the tags. So, let's see how we can add text to our elements:

# Copying the code from the very first example
root = et.Element('html', version="5.0")
et.SubElement(root, 'title', bgcolor="red", fontsize="22")
et.SubElement(root, 'body', fontsize="15")

# Add text to the Elements and SubElements
root.text = "This is an HTML file"
root[0].text = "This is the head of that file"
root[1].text = "This is the title of that file"
root[2].text = "This is the body of that file and would contain paragraphs etc"

print(et.tostring(root, pretty_print=True).decode("utf-8"))


Output:

<html version="5.0">This is an HTML file<head>This is the head of that file</head><title bgcolor="red" fontsize="22">This is the title of that file</title><body fontsize="15">This is the body of that file and would contain paragraphs etc</body></html>


#### Check if an Element has Children

Next, there are two very important things that we should be able to check, as that is required in a lot of web scraping applications for exception handling. First thing we'd like to check is whether or not an element has children, and second is whether or not a node is an Element.

Let's do that for the nodes we created above:

if len(root) > 0:
print("True")
else:
print("False")


The above code will output "True" since the root node does have child nodes. However, if we check the same thing for the root's child nodes, like in the code below, the output will be "False".

for i in range(len(root)):
if (len(root[i]) > 0):
print("True")
else:
print("False")


Output:

False
False
False


Now let's do the same thing to see if each of the nodes is an Element or not:

for i in range(len(root)):
print(et.iselement(root[i]))


Output:

True
True
True


The iselement method is helpful for determining if you have a valid Element object, and thus if you can continue traversing it using the methods we've shown here.

#### Check if an Element has a Parent

Just now, we showed how to go down the hierarchy, i.e. how to check if an element has children or not, and now in this section we will try to go up the hierarchy, i.e. how to check and get the parent of a child node.

print(root.getparent())
print(root[0].getparent())
print(root[1].getparent())


The first line should return nothing (aka None) as the root node itself doesn't have any parent. The other two should both point to the root element i.e. the HTML tag. Let's check the output to see if it is what we expect:

Output:

None
<Element html at 0x1103c9688>
<Element html at 0x1103c9688>


#### Retrieving Element Siblings

In this section we will learn how to traverse sideways in the hierarchy, which retrieves an element's siblings in the tree.

Traversing the tree sideways is quite similar to navigating it vertically. For the latter, we used the getparent and the length of the element, for the former, we'll use getnext and getprevious functions. Let's try them on nodes that we previously created to see how they work:

# root[1] is the title tag
print(root[1].getnext()) # The tag after the title tag
print(root[1].getprevious()) # The tag before the title tag


Output:

<Element body at 0x10b5a75c8>


Here you can see that root[1].getnext() retrieved the "body" tag since it was the next element, and root[1].getprevious() retrieved the "head" tag.

Similarly, if we had used the getprevious function on root, it would have returned None, and if we had used the getnext function on root[2], it would also have returned None.

#### Parsing XML from a String

Moving on, if we have an XML or HTML file and we wish to parse the raw string in order to obtain or manipulate the required information, we can do so by following the example below:

root = et.XML('<html version="5.0">This is an HTML file<head>This is the head of that file</head><title bgcolor="red" fontsize="22">This is the title of that file</title><body fontsize="15">This is the body of that file and would contain paragraphs etc</body></html>')
root[1].text = "The title text has changed!"
print(et.tostring(root, xml_declaration=True).decode('utf-8'))


Output:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='ASCII'?>
<html version="5.0">This is an HTML file<head>This is the head of that file</head><title bgcolor="red" fontsize="22">The title text has changed!</title><body fontsize="15">This is the body of that file and would contain paragraphs etc</body></html>


As you can see, we successfully changed some text in the HTML document. The XML doctype declaration was also automatically added because of the xml_declaration parameter that we passed to the tostring function.

#### Searching for Elements

The last thing we're going to discuss is quite handy when parsing XML and HTML files. We will be checking ways through which we can see if an Element has any particular type of children, and if it does what do they contain.

This has many practical use-cases, such as finding all of the link elements on a particular web page.

print(root.find('a')) # No <a> tags exist, so this will be None

None