*If you're interested in reading more about Programming Interview Questions in general, we've compiled a lengthy list of these questions, including their explanations, implementations, visual representations and applications.*

### Introduction

Linked Lists are a data structure that represents a linear collection of nodes. A characteristic specific to linked lists is that the order of the nodes isn't dictated by their presence in memory, but rather the pointers that each node has to the next node in the sequence.

Representation of a Linked List

Multiple types of Linked Lists exist:

**Singly Linked Lists**- A classic linked list, like the one shown in the picture above. The nodes in Singly Linked Lists contain a pointer to the next node in the list.**Doubly Linked Lists**- This kind of Linked List contains both a pointer to the next, but also a pointer to the previous node in the list.**Circular Linked Lists**- Instead of containing a null pointer at the end of the list, the last node in these lists contains a pointer to the first node, making them circular.

### Inserting and Removing Nodes

#### Interview Question

Remove the 4th element from the following list:

```
2->4->5->3->7->0
```

Insert an element (6) on the 2nd position in the following list:

```
2->4->5->3->7->0
```

#### Explanation

Let's start off with a simple task - inserting a node into a list. There are a few ways someone can ask you to do this:

- Inserting at the start of the linked list
- Inserting at the end of the linked list
- Inserting at a given position

Let's cover them one by one first, before diving into the process of removing a node.

#### Inserting Nodes

To *insert a node at the start of a linked list*, we simply need to change the current head of the linked list to the new node we're inserting, and also point the inserted node to the old head:

Let's take a look at the pseudo code:

```
Node newNode
if head is null
head = newNode
newNode.next = head
head = newNode
```

To *insert a node at the end of a linked list*, we simply need to change the last pointer from `null`

to the new node:

Let's take a look at the pseudo code:

```
Node newNode
last = head;
while(last.next)
last = last.next
last.next = newNode1
```

We do this by assigning the `newNode`

as the head, if the list is empty, and iterating to the end of the list if it isn't, adding our node.

And finally, *to insert a node at the given position*, we need to set the next node of the given position as the next node of the new node, and assign the new node as the next node of the given position:

Let's take a look at the pseudo code:

```
insertAtPosition(list, node, newNode)
if node is not null
newNode.next = node.next
node.next = newNode;
```

#### Removing Nodes

What we have to do here is traverse the list, keeping track of the node previous from the node we want to remove.

Upon reaching the node we want to remove, we point the previous node to the node after the target node and remove the target node:

```
removeNode(Node node)
prevNode = null
curr = head
while curr is not null
if prevNode is null
head = curr.next
if curr == node
prevNode.next = curr.next
curr = null
prevNode = curr
curr = curr.next
```

### Comparing Strings Represented as Linked Lists

#### Interview Question

Write a function that can compare two Strings, represented as Linked Lists such as:

```
List 1: S->T->A->C->K->A->B->U->S->E
List 2: S->T->A->C->K->O->V->E->R->F->L->O->W
```

The function can return three values:

**0**- If the two lists represent the same String**1**- If the first list is lexicographically greater than the second list**-1**- If the second list is lexicographically greater than the first list

**Note:** "Lexicographically greater" means that a String would appear after the other String based on the dictionary position.

If implemented correctly, using that function on this particular example should produce the following result:

```
-1
```

#### Explanation

```
compare(node1, node2):
while node and node are not null AND node1.content is equal to node2.content
node1 = node1.next
node2 = node2.next
if node1 and node2 are not null
if node1.content > node2.content
return 1
else
return -1
if node1 is not null and node2 is null
return 1
if node2 is not null and node1 is null
return -1
return 0
list1 = Node('s')
list1.next = Node('t')
list1.next.next = Node('a')
list1.next.next.next = Node('c')
list1.next.next.next.next = Node('k')
list1.next.next.next.next.next = Node('a')
list1.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('b')
list1.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('u')
list1.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('s')
list1.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('e')
list2 = Node('s')
list2.next = Node('t')
list2.next.next = Node('a')
list2.next.next.next = Node('c')
list2.next.next.next.next = Node('k')
list2.next.next.next.next.next = Node('o')
list2.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('v')
list2.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('e')
list2.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('r')
list2.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('f')
list2.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('l')
list2.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('o')
list2.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('w')
compare(list1, list2)
```

The `while`

loop traverses both lists with two conditions attached:

`node1`

and`node2`

are not null`node1.content`

is equal to`node2.content`

This means that it will traverse both of the lists, node by node, as long as they don't reach the end of the list, and each character matches between them. If any of these two conditions return false, the loop breaks.

The `if`

statement check whether both of the nodes aren't `null`

:

- If the content of the first node is greater than that of the second node, we return
`1`

- If the content of the second node is greater than that of the first node, we return
`-1`

And the final two `if`

statements simply returns `1`

and `-1`

accordingly if the list sizes don't match.

Ultimately, if it passes all the checks, it means that the lists match and represent the same String, returning `0`

.

### Reversing a List

#### Interview Question

Reverse the given linked list:

```
1->2->3->4->5
```

#### Explanation

There are two ways to approach this problem: *iterative* and *recursive*.

Let's take a look at the *iterative* pseudo-code behind the implementation:

```
Node prevNode, currNode, nextNode
prevNode = null
nextNode = null
currNode = head
while currNode is not null
nextNode = currNode.next
currNode.next = prevNode
prevNode = currNode
currNode = nextNode
head = prevNode
```

To accomplish this, we instantiate three nodes - `prevNode`

, `nextNode`

and `currNode`

. Both `prevNode`

and `nextNode`

are pointed to null, and `currNode`

is set to be the current head of the linked list.

A while loop is begun with a termination condition of the `currNode`

pointing to null, and the switching process begins:

`nextNode`

becomes the next node in line for the`currNode`

`currNode.next`

(the next node in line) points to`prevNode`

, which is currently null`prevNode`

is changed and now points to`currNode`

, switching their places`currNode`

is changed and now points to`nextNode`

which was previously set to the next node in line for the`currNode`

. This effectively advances the`currNode`

marker through the Linked List and begins the process all over again.As the

`currNode`

marker moves, it eventually reaches the end and all nodes have been reversed. The termination condition is met as`currNode`

points to`null`

and the head becomes`prevNode`

which is the former last node in the Linked List. Since all of the references are reversed, to complete the reversal, the head must also point to the now first element in the sequence.

With that out of the way, let's take a look at the *recursive* pseudo-code behind the implementation:

```
Node first, rest
Node recursiveReverse(Node current, previous)
if current.next is null
head = current
current.previous = previous
return
first = current.next
current.next = previous
recursiveReverse(first, current)
return head
```

### Selecting a Random Node

#### Interview Question

Return a random node from a given linked list ensuring that the probability to fetch that specific node is *1/n* where *n* is the size of the list:

```
1->4->2->5->9->7
```

#### Explanation

There are two ways to approach this problem and come up with a solution:

- Traversing the list and counting as we go. Then we traverse it again, selecting each and every node with probability 1/n before we generate a random number from 0 to
`N-i`

for the*i'th*node and selecting the node if the generated number is equal to 0 or any other fixed number from the 0 to`N-i`

range.

This approach has a major setback - we need to traverse the list twice. Once to count it and another time to select a random node. In most cases, this approach isn't wanted, so we turn to the other one:

**Reservoir Sampling**- We select the first element, regardless of the list size since we don't already know it in advance. Then, we traverse the list forward considering each and every subsequent node for selection with the probability*1/n*where*n*is the number of already visited nodes. This way, we ensure that the probability of choosing any given node from the list is*1/n*.

**Note**: This is in fact a simplified version of Reservoir Sampling, which is often used for selecting *k* elements from a list containing *n* items where *n* is unknown or very large. In this case, we're also selecting *k* elements, which happens to be a single element.

Let's take a look at the pseudo-code behind the implementation:

```
reservoirSample(stream, n, k)
i = 0
// initialize reservoir with k elements
reservoir[k]
// populate the reservoir with the wanted number of elements
for i < k
reservoir[i] = stream[i]
// iterate from the (k+1)th element to nth element
while i < n
// pick random number from 0 to i
j = randomNumber(i+1)
// if the random index is smaller than k, replace the element at that index with a new element from te stream
if j < k
reservoir[j] = stream[i]
```

### Finding the Middle Node

#### Interview Question

##### Even Number of Elements

Find the middle node in the given linked list:

```
1->2->3->4->5->6
```

##### Uneven Number of Elements

Find the middle node in the given linked list:

```
1->2->3->4->5
```

#### Explanation

This question can have two versions:

- The linked list has an
**even**number of elements - We're looking for the two middle elements since there's no definitive middle element, after which we'll select the second middle element - The linked list has an
**uneven**number of elements - We're looking for the middle element

Additionally, we also have two approaches:

- Count the nodes in the list, divide the number by 2 and return the node at that position.
- Traverse the list with two pointers - the first one increments by 1, while the second one increments by 2. This way, the second one will reach the end of the list when the first one is in the middle.

Let's start off with the pseudo code behind the *first approach*:

```
int count
Node head
while head is not null
count+1
next = head.next
return count
list.getNode(count/2)
```

With that out of the way, let's explore the pseudo code behind the *second approach*:

```
Node slow, fast
while(fast is not null && fast.next is not null)
fast = fast.next.next
slow = slow.next
return slow
```

### Kth Element from Last Node

#### Interview Question

Find the 5th element from the end of the linked list:

```
1->2->4->6->7->8->5->9
```

#### Explanation

In the case above, we're looking for the node with the value *6*, since it's the 5th node looking back from the end of the list.

There are two ways to get to this node:

**Relying on the length of the list**- (Length - n + 1)th node from the beginning.**Using pointers**- A reference pointer and a main pointer. Both pointers will start at the head of the list, with the reference pointer shifted by*K*nodes along the list. Then both pointers iterate by 1 until the reference pointer reaches the end. This makes the main pointer fall behind the reference pointer by*K*node, pointing at the node we're looking for.

Let's look at the pseudo code if we're relying on the **length of the list**:

```
printKthFromLast(int k)
length = 0
Node node = head
// traverse the list and count the elements
while node is not null
node = node.next
length+1
// if the kth element is larger than the length, return the head
if length < k
return
node = head
// traverse the list until the element we're searching for and return it
for i = 0, i < length-k+1, i+1
node = node.next
return node
```

Let's look at the pseudo code if we're relying on the *pointers*:

```
printKthFromLast(int k)
Node main = head
Node reference = head
// since we're already on the head, the length is equal to 1
length = 1
if head is not null
while length < k
// checks if we've reached the end
if reference is null
return
reference = reference.next
length+1
while reference is not null
main = main.next
reference = reference.next
return main
```

### Frequency of a Given Number

#### Interview Question

Count the number of times a number has occurred in a given linked list:

```
1->2->1->3->1->4->1->5
```

#### Explanation

This is both a common and a simple problem to encounter and tackle, and there's only a couple of steps needed to take in order to come up with a solution:

- Declare a counter
- Traverse each element of the list, and increase the counter every time an element is equal to the number whose frequency we're counting
- Return the count

Let's take a look at the pseudo-code behind the implementation:

```
count(searchFor)
Node curr = head
count = 0
while curr is not null
if curr.data == searchFor
count++
curr = curr.next
return count
```

Implementing the pseudo-code in any language and running it with this list would yield:

```
4
```

### Intersection of Two Linked Lists

#### Interview Question

Given two linked lists, where a node in the first one points to a node in the second one, in a random place, find the intersection place of these two lists.

#### Explanation

There are several approaches you could take here:

**Brute Force**- As the name implies, in a brute force fashion, traverse the entire second list, for each node in the first list and check for the intersection. This approach takes the most time, so it's very inefficient to use with large lists.**Hash Table**- Traverse the first list and store an address for each node in a hash set. Then traverse the second list and if an address from the second list is already stored in the hash set, it's the intersection node.**Two Pointers**- Again, using two pointers, we can find the intersection node. Initialize two pointers,`pointerA`

and`pointerB`

where both pointers traverse the list one step at a time. One list**must**be smaller than the other. If they had the same number of nodes and connected at the end, it'd simply be a singly linked list. If they have the same number of nodes, the list that connects to the other list before the end becomes the "bigger" list since it has more individual nodes. When`pointerA`

reaches the end of the list, redirect it to the head of the second list. If at any point these two pointers meet, that's the intersection node. If it's a bit confusing, it might be better to take a look at the attached animation below:

Let's first take a look at the pseudo-code behind the **brute force** approach:

```
Node list1_curr = head1
Node list2_curr = head2
while list1_curr is not null
while list2_curr is not null
if list1_curr == list2_curr
return list1_curr
```

Now, let's take a look at the pseudo-code behind the **hash table** approach:

```
getIntersectionHashTables(Node head1, Node head2)
nodes = hashSet
Node pointerA = head1
while pointerA is not null
nodes.add(pointerA)
pointerA = pointerA.next
if nodes is empty
return null
Node pointerB = head2
while pointerB is not null
if nodes contain pointerB
return pointerB
pointerB = pointerB.next
return null
```

This one is quite simple as well:

- We have two heads for each linked list.
- We add all the nodes from the first list into a hash set and then traverse the second list, checking if the hash table contains such a node already.
- If the hash table contains the node, it's returned and if not,
`null`

is returned.

Finally, let's take a look at the **two pointers** approach:

```
if pointerA is null and pointerB is null
return null
while pointerA is not pointerB
pointerA = pointerA.next
pointerB = pointerB.next
if pointerA is null
pointerA = headB
if pointerB is null
pointerB = headA
return pointerA
```

### Resources

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### Conclusion

In this article, we've covered the common interview questions related to linked lists.

Again, if you're interested in reading more about Programming Interview Questions in general, we've compiled a lengthy list of these questions, including their explanations, implementations, visual representations and applications.