Fixing "ReferenceError: Cannot access before initialization" in JavaScript


JavaScript, being a dynamic and loosely-typed language, has its own set of unique challenges and errors. One such error that often confuses developers is the ReferenceError: Cannot access 'variable' before initialization.

In this Byte, we'll unravel the mystery behind this error, understand why initializing variables is so important, and compare the behavior of var, let, and const.

What is a ReferenceError?

The ReferenceError: Cannot access 'variable' before initialization is thrown when you try to access a variable before it has been initialized. In JavaScript, you can declare a variable without initializing it, but if you try to use it before it's been assigned a value, you'll run into this error.

let testVar;
console.log(testVar); // undefined

console.log(notInitializedVar); // ReferenceError: Cannot access 'notInitializedVar' before initialization
let notInitializedVar;

In the above example, testVar is declared but not initialized, so when we log it to the console, it returns undefined. However, notInitializedVar is being accessed before it's declared, resulting in a ReferenceError.

Why initialize your variables?

Initializing variables is a good practice in JavaScript for several reasons. First, it makes your code more predictable. When a variable is initialized, you know exactly what its value is at the start of the program. This can prevent bugs and make your code easier to understand.

Second, initializing variables can improve performance. JavaScript engines can optimize your code better when they know the types of your variables in advance.

Third, it's a requirement when using const. If you declare a variable with const and don't initialize it, you'll get a SyntaxError.

let testVar; // OK
const testConst; // SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

Different Types of Variables

In JavaScript, you can declare variables using var, let, or const. The difference between them lies in their scope and hoisting behavior.

var is function-scoped and is hoisted to the top of its scope with an initial value of undefined. This means you can access it before its declaration, but it will return undefined.

console.log(testVar); // undefined
var testVar = 'Hello, World!';

let and const are block-scoped and are also hoisted to the top of their scope. However, they remain in a "temporal dead zone" from the start of the block until their declaration is processed. During this period, accessing them results in a ReferenceError.

console.log(testLet); // ReferenceError: Cannot access 'testLet' before initialization
let testLet = 'Hello, World!';

console.log(testConst); // ReferenceError: Cannot access 'testConst' before initialization
const testConst = 'Hello, World!';

Link: For a deeper dive into this topic, check out our guide The Difference Between var, let and const in JavaScript and Best Practices


In JavaScript, variable declarations can either be global or local. Global variables are declared outside a function, while local variables are declared inside a function. This distinction is important because it determines the scope of the variable - that is, where it can be accessed.

A variable is said to be shadowed when a local variable has the same name as a global variable. This can lead to unexpected behavior, as the local variable takes precedence over the global one.

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Consider the following example:

let x = 10; // global variable

function foo() {
    let x = 20; // local variable
    console.log(x); // outputs 20

console.log(x); // outputs 10

In this example, the local variable x inside the function foo shadows the global variable x. Inside foo, the value of x is 20, but outside foo, the value of x is 10.

Note: Variable shadowing can lead to confusion and bugs in your code. It's best to avoid using the same name for local and global variables.


Hoisting is a JavaScript mechanism where variables and function declarations are moved to the top of their containing scope during the compile phase. This means that you can use a variable or call a function before it's been declared.

Let's take a look at an example:

console.log(x); // outputs undefined
var x = 5;
console.log(x); // outputs 5

Even though x is declared after the first console.log, the code doesn't throw a ReferenceError. This is because JavaScript hoists the declaration of x to the top of the scope.

However, it's important to note that only the declarations are hoisted. Initializations (when you assign a value to the variable) are not hoisted. This is why the first console.log outputs undefined instead of 5.

Note: While hoisting can be useful, it can also lead to unexpected behavior. It's generally a good practice to declare and initialize your variables at the top of the scope to avoid confusion.

Best Practices

When writing JavaScript, it's important to consider where you place your variables. Here are a few best practices to keep in mind:

  1. Declare variables at the top of the scope: This can help avoid issues with hoisting and make your code easier to read and understand.

  2. Use let and const instead of var: let and const have block scope, which means they are only accessible within the block they are declared in. This can help prevent issues with variable shadowing. var was the original way to declare variables in JS, but now best practice is to use let or const.

  3. Initialize variables when you declare them: This can help prevent ReferenceError: Cannot access before initialization errors.

Here's an example that follows these best practices:

function foo() {
    let x = 10; // declare and initialize at the top of the scope
    const y = 20; // use const for variables that won't change

    // rest of the code...

// rest of the code...


As a JS developer, you'll need to understand variable declarations, hoisting, and shadowing to avoid errors like ReferenceError: Cannot access before initialization. JS works a bit different than other languages, so these nuances can be confusing. By following best practices like declaring variables at the top of the scope, using let and const instead of var, and initializing variables when you declare them, you can write cleaner, more predictable code.

Last Updated: August 24th, 2023
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